A family is a social unit consisting of a mother, father and children. They share certain goals and values and live together in one home.
to love, to take care, help each other, support one another
The family as an institution that provides protection, education, socialisation, and care for the aged, sick or disabled.
Nuclear family/immediate family: father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister.
Extended family: grandfather, grandmother, great–grandfather, great–grandmother, grandson, granddaughter, uncle, aunt, cousin, nephew, niece, godmother, godfather. In-laws: father in law, mother in law, sister in law, brother in law.
Family is not only part of society, but family is also economical unit. Earning money and spending money are processes connected with economy. Educational function: family teaches children and parents many different things like: how to walk, how to talk, how to do the shopping, how to get to school, how to read, how to keep promises, how to achieve something in your life, how to help one another and so on......
hovering, sweeping, ironing, cleaning, tidying up, making the bed, washing up, dusting, doing the shopping, folding clothes, polishing the shoes, taking out the rubbish
Generation gap is a broad difference in values and attitudes between one generation and another, especially between parents and their children. For example: there is a real generation gap in their choice of music, clothes, habits, hair style.
Many older people think that the young generation is interested in money. But elder people often don't understand this age. You can not teach an old dog new tricks. You are only as old as you feel.
Culture is the way of life of a particular country. Culture can be connected with everyday life. For example: Behaviour and manners. Art is expression of one person.
There were 6 art periods:
Cinema: It has the greatest popularity among young people.
Painting and architecture: Painters: Picasso, Van Gogh, Rembrandt, Claude Monet, Michelangelo.
In a big city there is usually a better choice of cultural facilities than in a small town/village. In a large city, you can go to: a cinema, a theatre - in the theatre you can see different kinds of performance: a drama, a comedy, an opera, a musical, a ballet.
In small towns and villages there are not as many opportunities for cultural life as there are in big cities. If people who live in a village want to see a film or a theatre performance, they have to travel to the nearest town or a city. If they don’t want to travel, they can watch a film on TV or they can borrow a DVD and watch it at home.
1. Sport is physical activity which helps people to be fit - physically and mentally. It is one of the most popular free-time activities. 2. Games are usually played between 2 people or 2 teams. A game has certain rules, there is a referee. The referee decides who will win. The most popular games are: football, basketball, baseball, ice-hockey, tennis, golf, etc
1) according to place they usually take into: A) INDOOR: for example: gymnastics, swimming, basketball, table tennis, badminton, boxing, wrestling B) OUTDOOR: for example: golf, skiing, snowboarding, cycling, mountaineering, hiking, sailing, water-skiing, diving, windsurfing, jogging, fishing, athletics
2) according to disciplines: A) Athletics includes these sport activities: marathon, half-marathon, 10K run, relay run, jumping, throwing a hammer or a discus B) Water sports includes water polo, swimming, windsurfing, sailing, and so on… C) Ground sports are generally stable and performed on land: workout, powerlifting, football, hockey
3) according to year periods: A) Summer sports: football, biking, golf etc.. B) Winter sports: ice - hockey, skying, etc..
4) according to number of performers: A) INDIVIDUAL SPORTS: running, cycling, swimming, skating, skiing, snowboarding, shooting, bodybuilding, weight lifting and so on. B) COLLECTIVE SPORTS: ice-hockey, rugby, tennis, water polo
Some sports and games can be played both indoors and outdoors. For example: football, tennis, swimming, skating (speed skating, figure skating, roller-skating) and so on.
The most popular collective sports are BALL GAMES – for example football, basketball, volleyball, water polo.
Amateurs - amateurs are people who do sport for fun, not for money or as a job. They do sport because: they want to be fit and healthy, sport is a form of relaxation, sport can help us to lose weight, they can meet many new people.....
Professionals – they do sport because it is their job. By doing sport, they earn a lot of money. Most of them want to become famous and have success. It is not easy to become a professional sportsman. You have to start young and be prepared to work hard. You should train a lot and have a healthy lifestyle. Famous sportsmen are popular between people and they have many fans.
If you want to be a successful sportsman, you should have these qualities: stamina/endurance, strong will, discipline, the sense for fair-play.
People in villages have more privacy. People in villages usually live in houses with a garden. Some of them also have a garage. Living in a house has many advantages: there is more privacy. There is more space - more rooms. Houses usually have a ground floor and the first floor. Houses usually have a garden and a garage. You can listen to loud music. you can keep bigger pets: dogs, cats, horses. But it can also have some disadvantages: It is more expensive.
You have to work in the garden – you must cut the grass, look after the trees. You have to tidy up more rooms and clean more windows.
The countryside is usually quiet and comfortable. In summer you can go out for a walk to the forest or you can just sit in the garden, read a book or relax. People in the village usually know each other. They can help you if you need help. But living in the countryside has also some disadvantages. Some people think that it is boring. There is no cinema, swimming pool or fitness centre. Sometimes you have to travel by train or by bus if you work or go to school in the town.
Living in a town also has some advantages and disadvantages. People in towns usually live in a block of flats. The advantages of living in the block of flats are: It is cheaper. It is comfortable. You don’t have to clean a lot because you don’t have many rooms and windows.
But it has disadvantates, too. For example: There is less privacy. There is less space. Flat usually doesn’t have a garden. You can’t listen to loud music. If the lift doesn’t work, you have to go up by foot. If anything brakes in your flat, you can cause damage to other people – for example, if the watertap breaks in your flat, the water will damage your neighbour’s flat below.Living in the town or a city is exciting. If you live in a town, you can enjoy the cultural life – you can go to the cinema, to the theatre, for a concert, to the fitness centre or a swimming pool. You can go out and have a dinner in a restaurant, if you want to. There are usually supermarkets which are opened for longer than the shops in villages. The disadvantages of living in the city are: city is usually dirty, noisy, it is more dangerous than the countryside......
Many Slovaks live in flats. A flat is situated in the same building as other flats. During the communist period a lot huge housing estates were built in our country. A flat may be large with nearly as much space as a house. It may be just one room with kitchen and bathroom. Most of the flats in Slovakia are two-, three- or four - room flats. Slovak houses are usually quite bigger and the older ones are often shared by two families- grandparents, their children and grandchildren.
1. a SHOPPING CENTRE. For example EUROVEA, SHOPPING PALACE, AUPARK and POLUS CITY CENTER in Bratislava. Shopping centre is a large building with many smaller shops in it. Shopping centers offer many additional services – there are banks, post offices, travel agencies, a swimming pool, cafés, restaurants and cinemas and so on.
2. a DEPARTMENT STORE.Department store is a large store divided into several big sections. Each section sells different types of things, for example: clothes, furniture, household appliances and so on. It has a car park and is situated in bigger cities and towns. Some of them are opened non-stop. Shopping in a department store has many advantages: You can buy everything under one roof. They usually offer lower prices. They often offer sales and bargains. You can use a big shopping trolley to take your shopping to your car.
3. a SUPERMARKET. For example TESCO. They are situated in cities and towns. People go to the supermarket to buy mostly food and drinks. It is smaller than a department store and usually offers fewer goods. It has longer opening hours than small shops.
4. a small SHOP. They usually have shorter opening hours than supermarkets, department stores and shopping centers. Small shops usually sell food or other things. For example: you can get books in a bookshop, shoes in a shoe shop and so on. People who work in a shop are shop assistants – they sell things and serve customers. Shop assistants in small villages and towns usually know their customers. Some shops and most department stores have store detectives who watch customers to stop them from shoplifting.
5. a MARKET. Many people prefer to buy the fruit and vegetables or other things at a market. Markets are popular because of their special atmosphere – they are noisy, overcrowded but people can walk from stall to stall, they can touch and taste products and talk to the salesmen. They can try to bargain and get a reduced price. In Slovakia, products bought in markets are often cheaper than products bought in shops and supermarkets.
It is a system that provides something that the public needs. It`s organized by the government or private company. We know many types of services:
Dry-cleaning, Shoes repairs , Photo coppie, Babysitting, Gardeners, Window cleaners, Electricians, Hairdresser. Repairman, painters and decorators, plumbers, domestic cleaners (called „daily helps“) and child-minders (women who look after children during the day while the parents are at work) also often advertise their services in this way. Services are also advertised in the „classified ads“ section of local newspapers.
Many services can be ordered by telephone and a special telephone directory called the Yellow Pages“. It lists firms according to the services they provide. You can order a cooked meal to be delivered from a Chinese restaurant or a pizza restaurant. If you want to send a present to someone, you can arrange for chocolates, flowers, and so on to be delivered. Many of these delivery services use motorcycles.
Shops and offices in town centers provide services such as dry cleaning, shoe repairs, photocopying and the use of fax machines. In launderettes you can wash and dry clothes in coin-operated machines. There are estate agencies for buying and selling houses, letting agencies for finding rented accommodation and employment agencies for finding a job. Some employment agencies specialize in a particular kind of job, for example secretarial jobs.
Advertisement persuade a customer to choose a shop or a service by use of auditory or/and visual narration. The purpose of advertisement is to drive customers behaviour towards buying/purchasing product.
There were paintings on the walls in Ancient Egypt. Boom started in 19th Century in the press, 1920's in radio and 1950's in TV.
We know a few types of avertisement: Street billboards, catchy jingles on tv and radio (in other words Commercials), pictures in magazines and newspapers, leaflet, sales promotion, catalogues and so on.
We also know store advertising or branding. Branding is wearing a brand in an film or somewhere else. For example: Celebrity branding. Infomercial is a whole text about a product.
Disadvantages of advertisement All kinds of advertisement try to attract our attention, (in other words: Target group), and introduce new products and ideas.
Advertisers make us believe we can realise our ambitions quickly and easily, only if we will use (of course, it means buy) their product. Advertisers want us to spend money on their products sometimes with use of hidden force. They want us to make believe that their product meets our needs. They try to reach your value.
Advantages of advertisement: Advertising is informative, increases demand, stimulates industry and keeps prices down.
Answer: Hire purchase It's when you pay instalments every month.
Human body is the most wonderful organism on the Earth. We have been exploring it for decades but we haven't been able to find and to know all facts hidden in it so far.
Human body consists of bones and muscles. There are three parts of the body: head, body, arms and legs. Head is covered by hair. It contains brain - the centre of the nervous system.
Head, eye, mouth, ear, cheek, nose, neck, shoulders, chest, back, arm, elbow, hand, wrist, fingers, bottom, leg, thigh, knee, whistle, ankle, foot.
Health is very important and therefore everybody should look after it. World Health Organisation, describe Health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being.
If we feel ill, we go to see our doctor who is called a GP (general practitioner). We should make an appointment in advance and we must take our insurance card with us. Everybody in our country has the right go choose a doctor. When we come to the doctor’s surgery, he asks us how we feel and what problems we have. He examines us and prescribes medicine. Sometimes we must see a specialist – for example a dentist, a surgeon, a psychiatrist and so on.
Some people prefer alternative medicine – it isn’t the traditional way of treating illnesses. For example acupuncture when thin needles are put into different parts of the body.
If we want to avoid illnesses, we should keep a helthy lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle can help us to protect our body against diseases.
It's better to eat fruit and vegetables. It is more healthy because fruit and vegetables don’t contain chemical additives but the vitamin pills usually do. It's better to eat raw fruit and vegetables because when we cook it, it looses the vitamins.
Health care in Slovakia is provided for people from birth to death. In Slovakia we have these health facilities:
Medical care can be given in: a health centre, a clinic, a hospital, a surgery, an ambulance. A pediatrician is a doctor who looks after the health of children. When a child is born, he is vaccinated against such diseases as tuberculosis, tetanus and so on. GP (general practitioner) is a doctor who looks after the health of adults. In case of emergency we can call an ambulance – we call the number 155 – the ambulance takes the patient to a hospital. Serious cases are immediately operated on in the operating theatre. If we break a leg or an arm, we are X-rayed.
World Health Organisation It is an agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1948. The Headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organisation should sort out the problems: epidemic controll, drug standardization and so on. World Health Organisation defines health as "state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing". It operates through 3 principal organs: the world health assembly, an executive board of health specialists, and a secretariat. The organization is financed from annual contributions made by member of governments. The work of World Health Organisation may be devided into 3 categories: Health information, Disease control, Consultation and Education.
Journey is an act of travelling from one place to another. Trip means go on a short journey. Voyage is a long journey involving travel by sea or in space - (for example take a cruise down the river). Tour is a journey for pleasure in which several places are visited. Examples: Business trip/ Work stay. Study stay, Exchange stay, expedition, Scholarship, Commute. Backpacker's holiday.. Cruise tour and sailing tour. Work stay is when you stay there for a long time. Scholarship are money for study stay. Commute is travelling to school every day. Backpacker's holiday is when you get trip by yourself. Package tour/trip is when you use travel agent. Globe trotter is a passionate traveler.
In communism we needed special permissions to visit any country.
Travelling and seasons of the year: In winter we use ski resorts. You cannot ski under influence in most countries.
People travel for many reasons. For example: It is a good way to learn about life – to learn new things, to understand other cultures, their traditions, customs and to get to know them. For a holiday - to relax and to get some rest.
Advantages are. Traveling by car is comfortable. You can listen to the radio while you drive. You can go anywhere anytime – you don’t have to use the public transport, you don’t have to buy a ticket. You can stop at any time you need to have a break. The car has a trunk - it has a big space to carry your luggage and other things.
A car is expensive to buy. Petrol is expensive. You must have a driving licence. You must pay for parking. You can end up in a traffic jam. Statistically it is the most dangerous way of transport – you can have a car crash. It pollutes the air which is not good for our environment.
We can spend time talking to other passengers on the bus. We can relax – read and look out of the window, work, eat. Buses stop more often than trains – you can get off at a bus stop which is closer to the place where you need to go. You don’t have to drive.
It's expensive (but usually cheaper than traveling by car). It's often crowded. It's sometimes delayed. You have to get to the bus stop. You must travel at certain times. Sometimes stopping at too many bus stops can be a disadvantage.
Types of train. Cargo train/ passanger train/ express train... TGV in France... or EUROSTAR from UK to France, which goes through British channel via Europe tunnel... Local train and internationals trains. International trains offer high quality.
We can spend time talking to other passengers on the train. We can relax – read and look out of the window, work, eat. It usually isn’t stressful. Trains are comfortable if they are not crowded. You don’t have to drive.
It's expensive (but usually cheaper than traveling by car). It's often crowded. It's sometimes delayed. You have to get to the station. Sometimes you have to use other transport to get to the station. You must travel at certain times.
It is expensive. It's strictly dependent on timetable – you have to travel at certain times. Sometimes the flight can be delayed or cancelled. You have to buy the plane ticket in advance. Some people are afraid of heights and confined spaces.
It's relatively safe. It's mostly used for trips during holidays.
You can get seasick. A ship can sink.
The general education in Slovakia is free of charge. You don’t have to pay if you go to a state school but in most private schools you have to pay fees. School attendance in Slovakia is compulsory for children aged from 6 to 15 years.
In Slovakia we have:
1.) state schools.
2.) private schools.
3.) church schools.
1.) PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION. It includes nursery schools and kindergartens. They are for children from 3 to 6 years old.
2.) PRIMARY SCHOOLS. Children start attending primary schools when they are 6 years old and finish when they are 15 years old. The children at primary schools study these subjects: mathematics, physics, Slovak language, a foreign language, geography, history and so on.
3.) SECONDARY SCHOOLS. It usually takes from 3 to 4 years to complete secondary education. To complete secondary education you have to pass the final exam. We have to pass the school leaving examination.
When children finish the primary school, they can choose one of the following secondary schools:
3.1.) Grammar schools. They prepare students for the university study.
3.2.) Special schools. They include: technical colleges, business academies, music and art schools.
3.3.) Vocational schools. These are apprentice schools that train their students for practical jobs: for example to become a shop assistant, a plumber, a builder or a carpenter.
4.) UNIVERSITIES. If you pass the entrance exam, you can go to a university. The university study takes from 4 to 6 years. When you successfully finish university, you get a diploma and you are awarded with a degree. For example: Bachelor’s Degree (Bc.) and Master’s Degree.
5.) FURTHER EDUCATION. It includes different kinds of training courses. You usually have to pay for them.
The school year in Slovakia starts on 2nd of September and ends in June - on the 30th of June. We have 2 terms: a summer term and a winter term. In July and August we have holidays. We also have a few days off school in autumn, during Christmas and a week holiday in spring. We have on average 6 lessons a day. A lesson is 45 minutes long. Between the lessons we have breaks that are 5 or 10 minutes long. We also have a lunch break which is 20 minutes long. Students are evaluated by marks on the scale from 1 to 5 – 1 is the best and 5 is the worst.
During the school year we have some special events, for example: sport events, school trips, we go to the cinema, parent-teacher meetings, graduation balls.
Subjects taught at school during the school year:
Subjects are: maths, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, history, foreign languages, technical subjects, PE - physical education, religious education, social sciences.
They choose the school to study what they are interesting in by the study at the university they are getting to know and to be orientated in their future jobs.
It depends on the selected job what will be in the future and how we will live.
1.) Physical work. For example: a mechanic, a plumber, a carpenter, a builder, a miner, a fireman and so on.
2.) Mental work. For example: a lawyer, an architect, an accountant, a designer.
1.) Economically active population. A group of people who are willing and are able to work and people who still searching. This group also includes self-employed people and employees.
2.) Economically inactive population. people who are the retired, the disabled, the sick or those who don't wish or are unable to work.
The terms which labor market contains:
Employment is a contract between employeer and an employee.
The employer is a person who hires employees.
Self employed individuals are people who have their own business.
The unemployed are people who lost their job, quit or were fired. They live on unemployment benefit support and are on a list in job centres, which help them find a new job.
When people search for a new job, they look at several factors, such as type to work, possible promotion and career development, salary, working time, travel opportunities, place of work and others. The available positions are published in the newspapers or on the internet. The candidates send the job application and their CV together with a cover letter. Their CV should include personal data and details about education, skills and work experiences.
The best candidates are invited to an oral interview. At the interview, they usually answer questions, decribe their motivations and expectations. Candidates should prepare well for the interview, find information about the organisation or the company, answer clearly and stay calm.
Successful candidates are offered a job with a starting salary, positions, medical benefits and vacation days.
Slovakia is still a country with relatively high unemployment compared with western europe. Unemployment in Slovakia is around 12%. It is not because the slovaks would not want to work. The reason is lack of good jobs. While in bratislava unemployment is below 5% in the districts of southern and eastern Slovakia is worth more than 20%. Therefore the people of these regions are more considering leaving to work abroad.
Permanent, temporary, full-time employment, part-time contract and contract upon order.
There are several ways how to find a job. You can: Look at job advertisements in newspaper or on the internet. Ask your family, friends and acquaintances if they know about any job vacancies. You can go to a job centre or to an employment agency and ask for help.
When you find a job advertisement, you have to contact your future employer either by post, telephone, or e-mail and find out if the position is still free. If it is, you have to write a CV, in which you include all the necessary information – your personal data and details about your education, qualifications and special skills (for example computer skills, driving licence …). Then you send your CV together with a cover letter (a letter that offers more detailed information about you), to your potential employer. After that you should prepare for the job-interview.
If you are looking for a job, you should find out these informations: What is the working time? What is the salary ? What are my duties, responsibilities? When would you need me to start?
Raising a child is the hardest, most responsible and satisfying task a human being can face. When they have a child, one of the parents must go to a maternity leave which takes 2 or 3 years.
Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. A person may also semi-retire by reducing work hours. The standart age for retirement is considered 62, although many individuals choose to retire earlier or later due to personal or financial reasons.
Workaholic is a man or woman who loves his/her job and he/she doesn’t want to do anything else. He works from morning till evening and he doesn’t have any free time which he could spend with his family and friends. I think that it is fine to have a good job and do it perfectly, but it's also very important to do some hobbies, or to go for a walk and enjoy sport activities.
When two people are friendly towards each other and get on well together, we say that they have a good relationship.
1.) formal. for example: public relations or diplomatic relations. Also relations between Manager and asssistant... In formal relationship people should keep their feelings at bay.
2.) informal. for example: personal relationships, romantic relationships or friendship. Relations among friends, neighbours, acquaintances, family members, girlfriend and boyfriend, or fiance and fiance and so on. In informal relationship people are on first name's term. They can express their emotions.
1.) Short term relationship.
2.) Long term relationship.
In long term relationship, there are three vital components that make up true love:
It contains foundation, some secrets but trust. To be honest with each other, not half -truth. To be pleasant to look at him or her. It absolutely okey if there are occasionaly blowouts. Periodic arguing is usuall. Problem is constant arguing, in other words: constant bickering.
If you want to maintain your relationship with your love, you should also do these things:More compliments than criticize. Talking positive things about friends of your husband or wife. Remember, that it 's okay to do things differently. Do not change your partner! Make time for the two of you. Marry someone, that you enjoy listening and talking to. Marriage is sometime beautiful awful: Be patient and solve all of your problems with calm mind. Best gift to children is love of their parents. Dividing houseworks and spending money.... Never, ever go to bed angry! Remember, that people do fight. It's how you do it that matters.... Before starting an argument, consider if it's really worth it. Never, ever mention the word Divorce. Respect each other's privacy. Do you want to be right or to be married?
Love is like childhood: You must learn to share..... Marriage is not 50 50, it's two people giving 100%, all of the time.
1.) The relationship between men and women.
The relationship between men and women in general has changed over years. Women were not treated equally to men in the past. They didn’t have equal rights. In the past women stayed at home and looked after children. They didn’t have a job and couldn’t vote. Today women have better jobs and better educational opportunities. Formally women have equal rights to men, but they still do not have equal political power, or it is difficult for them to get a leading position in a company.
2.) The relationship between a man and a woman.
Girls and boys like to go out together. The boy usually asks the girl out: we say that they go on a date. If they don’t understand each other and argue a lot, they break up/split up. If their relationship lasts and they get to know each other, they can fall in love and have a romantic relationship. Later they get engaged and they get married. When they get married, they become a husband and a wife. Some couples have problems in the marriage. for example: They don’t understand each other. They argue a lot (because of money, they don’t like their new relatives and so on)... One of the partners can start having an affair/ romance/a flirt. He or she falls in love with somebody else and finds a lover. If there are too many problems in the marriage, they can get a divorce.
When we make friends, we usually try to find people who have similar hobbies and attitudes towards life as we do. A friendship between a man and a woman can sometimes change into love. I think that friendship is very important in our life. People often say: "A friend in need, is friend indeed". And I think it's true, because friends are here to help us when we need help.
Most people have a best friend. A best friend is someone who: Is always here for you when you need him. He always helps you when you have problems. He always finds time to listen to you. He doesn’t envy when you are happy and successful, but he's happy with you. He helps you when other people disappoint you and let you down. And he can also forgive and forget when you disappoint him.
4.) Family relationships.
There are types of parents:
1.) Assertive democratic. They have rules, but they know how to make compromises. They monitor child, so they know him very well.
2.) Authoritative style. They have strict rules, they are not dealing with child.
3.) Permissive parents. They give children freedom and flexibility, They don't give them any rules, so they are allowed to do everything.
4.) Overly strict parents. They control their children and they are extremely strict.
Reasons for change of behavior of a child: physical illness, changes at school, pressure in a group, growing up, finding their purpose. We can say that too much freedom is not good for children.
Life events: Birthday party, Christmas, New Year, Saint Valentines day, Easter, Carnival, Wedding
We can identify the following main types of climate:
During a year exchanges four seasons: Spring Summer Autumn Winter
Spring is a beautiful season. Nature,the trees and forest animals awakes from its long winter sleep. All the landscape turns green and birds start flying around and small animals are born. Soon in gardens the first flowers.
Basic features of spring:
There is more sunshine and the weather becomes warmer than in winter. The snow melts. Nights get shorter and days get longer. Flowers and trees bloom. For example: snowdrops, dundee lions, daffodils. Birds return from the south. People start working in the garden. We have Easter holidays.
Summer is the warmest season of the year. The temperature is mostly high. The days are longer and nights shorter than in winter.... Basic features of summer: Everything is green. Birds sing. The sky is mostly blue. Sometimes there are storms. It means there is crash of thunder and a flash of lightening.
We don’t have to go to school in summer. People travel on a holiday in summer and they visit foreign countries. They go to the sea or to the mountains.
Autumn is a season full of colours. The leaves get yellow, red and brown and fall down. The days are shorter and nights longer than in summer. The weather gets colder and it is usually cloudy and foggy. Basic features of autumn: It is the season when the leaves on the trees change their colours. At the beginning of autumn the weather is usually still nice and warm - we call this period Indian summer. The fruit ripens and people pick it from the trees. Later days become shorter, weather gets colder, the wind starts blowing. The trees shed their leaves and it rains a lot. Mornings are foggy and there is more frost. Birds fly to the south.
Winter is the coldest season when the temperature is below zero. There is a lot of snow in the mountains. The trees are bare and the whole landscape is covered with snow. Basic features of winter: It starts snowing and freezing, and the wind is icy. People can do winter sports, such as skiing, snowboarding and ice-skating. In December the Christmas time comes and people buy presents to each other.
During the year the weather changes a lot. It can be sunny, it can rain, snow, it can be overcast, or it can freeze. The weather influences many aspects of our lives. It influences:
When the weather is nice and warm, people wear T-shirts, shorts or skirts. On the other hand, in winter, when the weather is cold and when it's freezing, people wear warm clothes. For example: jumpers, coats, gloves, scarves and so on. When it rains, people must take an umbrella or a rain coat.
The weather can influence our mood a lot. When the weather is nice and the sun shines, people feel better: they are happy and they smile more. On the other hand, when the weather is bad, especially in autumn and winter: it rains a lot, it's foggy and cloudy and the days are short, people are melancholic and depressed. Statistics say, that in autumn and winter there are more suicides than in summer.
Some people are very sensitive to weather changes. When the weather changes, their health becomes worse or their body hurts. For example: their eyes or bones hurt, they have a headache. Especially older people complain about the pain, when the weather changes because their body can’t adapt to the weather changes so quickly.
When we talk about environment, we can talk about several problems: Acid rain, the hole in the ozon layer. the greenhouse effect or global warming.
Our life is dependent on 3 elements: the air, the water and the land.
It's the biggest problem in big cities where there are many factories and a lot of traffic. It's caused by smoke, dust, emissions, exhaust fumes. It later causes the acid rain and the greenhouse gases.
Acid rain is when chemicals mix with water in clouds and make acid rain, which damages buildings, kills trees and pollutes the soil.
It's caused by the households and agriculture. We use detergents, fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals. The water pollution can also be caused by big cargo ships and tankers. They can cause a catastrophe. For example: the oil can get into ocean, and kill fish and plants in the ocean.
It can be contaminated by chemicals or by individuals. We throw out our rubbish and so on.
Science and technology go hand in hand. They are unseparable parts, one influence another.
Science tries to ask questions that can be tested. Scientific knowledge is usually based on experiments.
It can help to find a solution for a problem or perform a specific function. It can also be the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures.
Science and technology is as old as the mankind. Science has started to develop as people have sought to somehow improve their lives. The first inventions and discoveries were very simple.
As the first important discovery in the development of the mankind, we consider in discovery of fire. On the other hand another vitally important invention was the invention of Wheel - (about 3 thousand and 500 Before Christ)
About the year 3000 Before Christ people started to live in towns, where science began to grow. Many important investions like writing, reading, counting, astronomy, medicine and chemistry began to develop. Man's effort to survive and to improve his way of life made him invent new and better tools, get deeper knowledge and control of the forces of nature. As man's knowledge grew people found it useful to classify it. It was separated into various branches, such as Physics: the study of natural forces... Biology: the study of living beings and Chemistry: the study of materials.
Science has been very fast growing and our understanding has much drown in comparison with the world hundred years ago. In that time patients battle illness, while doctors can't do more than counsel and comfort them and keep them clean. Now doctors treat and often cure patients with variety of medicines and medical Technologies. Public sanitation has eliminated many of the lethal diseases such as plague dysenters and tuberculosis. Many cures have been found for infectious diseases, flu, diabetes, and so on... Penicilin (an antibiotic that kills bacteria) was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Insulin by Sanger in 1958. Quite a few people live longer owing to transplanted organs, such as heart, kidneys, lungs or liver.
In nowadays television signal can be instantaneously transmitted by satellites to households. The news will spread as well by radio, newspaper, and the World Wide Web.
In the pre-historic times, people’s lives were very simple: people hunted for food and made primitive tools from stones, and simple clothes to protect them from the cold. The only tool which they had was the human hand. People wanted to make their lives easier and more comfortable and so they invented the wheel. They also built windmills to use the wind energy. Important discoveries and inventions came in 15th and 16th centuries: new continents. America, Asia, Africa were discovered, and sciences such as astronomy, philosophy, medicine and biology were developed. At that time also the printing press was invented in Germany by a man called Gutenberg.
Many important inventions came in the 18th and 19th century. It was the time of the Industrial Revolution: The steam engine by James Watt. The electric light bulb by Edison. The electric motor by Michael Faraday. The 1st petrol driven car by Daimler and K. Benz. and the electricity.
Thanks to these inventions, large factories were built and everything started to be produced by machines. The mass production started and many goods became cheaper, and so more people could buy them. Also the technologies improved and new and cheaper materials were used: Rubber, glass, leather, paper, plastics and synthetic materials.
Later, in the 20th century, these inventions came to existence: The airplane, the computer, the mobile phone, the Internet, the TV, the videophone, the credit cards, pesticides, fertilizers or genetically modified food.
In the 20th century, scientists made a lot of medical research that helps the doctors to save human lives and to cure many illnesses. for example: The laser, new drugs and vaccines, penicillin, vitamin C, X-ray, and so on.
Today we cannot imagine our lives without technology. We use it every day at home, at work, at school and in many other parts of our lives. They are very important for us. There are many inventions that we use every day.
For example at home we use these inventions:
Electric appliances. Fridge, a washing machine, PC, TV, an electric kettle, a mobile phone, an answering machine, a dishwasher, a plug, a socket, a microwave oven, a hoover. and so on.
A telephone, a fax machine, a computer, a notebook, a car, and so on.
It made our lives easier and more comfortable. Sometimes science can help to make a human life longer. for example: new medicine - penicillin, and medical technology was developed - X-ray, so many people can be cured.
Science and technology help us to learn new information about our life, the life of animals, our world and the space. People can travel to space, search the oceans and the jungle because we have the technology for it. We can measure, weigh very precisely. Science and technology helps us to overcome the distance. For example: the telephone, we can talk to and see
It is a group of people who share a defined territory and a culture. It's also a social structure where are expected certain patterns of behaviour and relationship.
ETHICS is the study of morals. It is also called morality or moral law, because it is about what is right and what is not, and how we decide what to do. So, ethics is ability to see differences between good and bad, and decide for good.
Everybody have the right to life, the right to freedom from injury and the right to privacy. People must avoid from rape, murder, slander, stealing, assault, fraud and so on.
Position of a man in society depends of many things. The 1st one is a family where the man was born. In society there are classes, into which people are divided according to their origin, job position, education or lifestyle. For example in Great Britain there are 3 classes - upper, middle and lower class. We could say that something similar we have also in Slovakia. But in our upper class there are no people with noble origin, and we include here people according to their property, like politicians, sportsmen, actors and other people with a big estate.
All the people have basic human rights.
Rules, values and ethics are the basis of every good society. It’s very important to keep these principles. They can help people to get on with another people. And it’s very important, because when people are on good terms with another people it’s better for society. We could prevent wars and conflicts.
We learn moral rules and principles all our life. Our parents raise us up, they teach us moral principles, values, they teach us what is polite and impolite, what should we do, and so on... At first they have to show us how to do it, because if they expect their children to take good manners seriously, they have to show the same manners to them. They tell us, that we should greet older people, that man should greet woman, children should greet adults they know. They tell us, that we should greet loud, with clear voice, looking into the eyes. They prepare us for life. They give us the basis of morals and it’s good for us. Because when we are polite, we can have good relations with another people.
Living in the society requires to follow code. (If we don't follow it, we would have anarchy). They contain rules of behaviour/manners, and apperance/dress code.
The basic social rules are taught at home, and at school.
1.) at home.
Parents should give their children a good example at home. They must look after them and teach them what is good and what is bad. They shouldn’t let them do everything their children want to do. They should talk to them and explain if they have a problem. Sometimes parents punish their children, but the punishment should always be reasonable.
2.) at school.
Teachers must also give students a good example. At school students can have lectures organized by the school about how to behave on a bus or a train, in a restaurant, when we go to a party and so on.
3.) at special institutions.
Some institutions organize courses where people can learn how to behave well in society – how to eat, drink, talk politely, how to ask woman for a dance and so on.
It is act of passing informations with each other. It requires feedback.
Verbal communication is spoken language, which is often spontaneous. The spoken word is usually face to face, which may allow the speaker to ask questions. In verbal communication we can use tension, tone and the modulation of the voice to express different meanings. Spoken language can also include laughter, signs and long expressive pauses to produce additional meaning. When something has been said it cannot be taken back.
2.) Non verbal.
Non verbal is written communication. It requires more thought and planning, and is often expressed in rather more format terms. The ideas are more structured and better organised with suitable examples included. Written words can be read several times, which helps their understanding. Written language does not allow the reader to fully appreciate the feelings, and attitudes of the writer at first hand, as the spoken word does. Writing is a better form of communication for recording facts and ideas.
1.) Auditory means.
It includes speaking, singing, tone of voice, modulation of voice and so on.
2.) Physical means.
It contains body language, facial expressions, eye contact, touch, writing and so on.
For example: In Europe, if you tap your index finger on your temple, it means a sign of stupidity, but in Arabic countries you touch the lower eyelid, with the tip of the index finger.
The thumps up sign in England is a positive sign of success, where as in Australia it's rather insulting.
1.) Morphology. It deals with grammar structure of words.
2.) Syntax. It studies the word order in the sentences.
3.) Lexicology. It denotes kinds of meanings carried by words and sentences.
All of these three parts are verbal communication.
Public media has large number of audience at the same time. Most are based on nation state level basis.
1.) Printed Media. It contains newspapers and magazines
2.) Electronic Media
First kind of material for writing was tipao in China. It's invented in 713. It was piece of silk. There was pointed some kinds of informations.
Printed media Newspapers.
It contains feature articles on sport, politics, comics, advertising, obituaries, business, crimes, weather forecast, and so on. All of these is called journalism.
1.) Broadsheet. It is highest quality of newspapers, according to its content.
For example: New York Times.
2.) Tabloid/Gutter press. It's half format of broadsheet. It has very low quality. They mislead readers.
For example: The Sun Globe, and New York Post.
3.) Berliner/Midi. It is something between broadsheet and tabloid.
For example: Guardian.
4.) Newsprint/ Off white. It is low quality of paper. It's local print to local people.
1.) Daily. (mostly five or six times per week)
2.) Weekly. (one time per week). It is often second half of week
3.) Fortnightly. (one time per two weeks)
Daily, Weekly and also Forthnighty are based on national state level
1.) General interest. For example: Slovenka, Plus 7 dní, Týždeň
2.) Special interest. They have limited numbers of readers. Very narrow topics.
They are subscription only and freely accesible. They have glossy paper. For example: Muscles and Fitness. Magazines are produced fortnightly, monthly and annually.
1.) Public. It has informative, educative and entertainment function.
It's based on taxes. It's funded by state treasury. Government redistributes money. Public TV is owned by state. It is channel between authority and inhabitans. Content must be independent.
It's based on advertising. They must to be attractive.They follow rating of programs.
Their physical or psychological development is almost complete, but emotionally they are not fully mature. A term youth includes teenagers from the age of 13 till the age of 19, but also young adults from 20 till 30.
Young people, in general, do not trust the authorities and tend to risk more. At this age they are under pressure because they usually start and complete their secondary education and have to decide about their future career.
Young people like to dress nicely. They like to wear brand name clothing, like Adidas, Puma or Kenvelo. They like being fit and attractive. Girls want to be slim, and boys want to look fit and have strong muscles. That’s why boys often go to the fitness centre, and girls are often on diets because they want to loose weight.
Young people like to be independent and respected. They know what they want from life, and they like freedom. They don’t like criticism and orders. They have their dreams and plans for future. They like their friends and they like spending time with them. So love and friendship is very important to them.
On the other hand, some young people are nowadays very cheeky, rude and impolite, and they don’t care about other people. Sometimes they are lazy, so they don’t help others.
Young people are goal-oriented and ambitious.. They have open mind. They often fight with unrequitted love. And when they are in relationship with somebody, they are sometimes jilted/dumped. Youngsters usually struggle with rejection.
3.) Life style
They want their life to be interesting and exciting . They like to live fast. In the developed world, young people are usually well-educated, experienced and self-confident.. They know their goals and try to reach them. They are often hardworking, and they have many opportunities to study or work abroad.. They often travel to foreign countries to learn a foreign language, earn money and gain experiences.
4.) Interests and leisure time
They like to go out with friends. They go to pubs, cinema, discos, music festivals and so on. They like modern inventions that make our lives easier. They can’t imagine life without the mobile phone or the computer. They are used to Internet banking, shopping on-line and using the Internet to find informations. They spend a lot of time playing computer games or listening to music.
alcohol, smoking, teenage pragnancy, generation problems, parents, lack of experience
In Slovakia a typical day starts with breakfast. Between breakfast and lunch we usually have a snack. At midday we have lunch. Later we can have a snack again. In the evening, we eat dinner.
1.) BREAKFAST. The typical breakfast in Slovakia consists of a slice of bread with butter, ham, cheese or jam with a cup of tea or coffee. Some people like sausages or rolls. Some people prefer healthy breakfast/light breakfast. For example cereals (Cornflakes, Chocapic or Nestle) with yoghurt. They drink fruit juice.Breakfast is very important, because it gives us energy for the start of the day.
2.) SNACK. We usually have a snack between breakfast and lunch. and we eat it at school or at work. Children and students usually bring their snack from home, or they buy it in the school buffet. As a snack people usually have a sandwich with ham or cheese, fruit, a chocolate bar or some sweets.
3.) LUNCH. Lunch is the main meal that we have during the day. We eat our lunch at midday. Some people have their lunch at work, at school in canteen or they wait and eat their lunch, when they come home. Our lunch usually has 2 courses: at first) Soup. For example:
Stock, meat soup, tomato soup, vegetable soup and so on. at second) Main meal. In Slovakia we usually have meat with potatoes or rice and some vegetables. In some families, people have lunch together. In Slovakia people always have lunch together at Christmas.
We can have these things in our main meal:
Meat. (types of meat: chicken, beef, pork, lamb, fish, tuna, salmon) With meat we eat for example: potatoes, french fries, rice, dumplings, pasta, salad. If you are looking for vegetables, there is always cabbage, often in front of sauerkraut.
4.) DINNER. In Slovakia it's not very common to cook dinner. We usually cook lunch and most people eat for dinner what they had for lunch. Some people just have a snack. For example: rolls, a cake with milk or tea and so on.
1.) Breakfast. Cereal with milk. To drink coffee or orange juice. For special occasions and weekends a full English may be eaten include eggs, bacon or sausage, baked beans, tomatoes, mushrooms and toast with butter or margarine or jam.
2.) Lunch. Packed lunch: a sandwich packed of crisps, a piece of fruit and drink.
3.) Dinner. Hot dressing on the meat, vegetables (and usually potatoes). Afters for kids. for example: ice cream, pie, and so on.
1.) Breakfast. Porridge, maize porridge, eggs, bacon, hash browns (Hash browns is a dish of cooked potatoes), toasts, pancakes, waffles, baguettes, cereals with tea or juice.
2.) Lunch. Burger and fries with a coca cola, pizza, hot dog, sandwich and soup.
3.) Dinner. Meat with potatoes and vegetables. After dinner they usually have deserts. For example: Apple pie or ice cream.
Many people like to eat at the restaurants because it's very comfortable. But if you do it every day, it's expansive. In addition, there is a big possibility that your food is unhealthy. So you better watch out you don't eat your main meal just in a restaurant. We also know take out/take away. It's food served to the customer in a packaged form.
Bryndzove halushky. It's potato dumplings with sheep cheese and roasted bacon. Zemiakové placky. Potato pancakes fried in oil with garlic and flour. Granadír. Pasta with potatoes. Kapustnica. Soup made of sour cabbage and smoked pork sausage. Variations can be by adding mushrooms or plums. Bryndza is a special type of traditional Slovak cheese.
2.) GREAT BRITAIN
British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable. The most common and typical food eaten in Britain include the sandwich, fish and chips, pies like the cornish pasty, trifle and roasts dinners. Some of our main dishes have strange names like Bubble & Squeak, and Toad-in-the-Hole. (hovädzie v ceste)
Americans eat a lot of fatty food. Hamburgers are quite popular and french fries. Also, peanut butter and jelly on bread, pasta, grilled steak, grilled chicken, roast chicken, fried chicken, chicken noodle soup, tacos, chocolate chip cookies, vegetables, potato chips, cheesesteaks, bacon, lettuce, tomato on bread, ham and cheese on bread, cheese and crackers, salads and watermelon.
It's usually time for having fun and there is many ways how to spend this time.
1.) Actively. It means doing sport, working in the garden.
2.) Passively. Watching TV, reading a book, playing computer games.
Gardening. People grow fruit, vegetables, cut the grass.
Do summer sports. Cycling, swimming, playing tennis, golf, football.
Go out with friends. We can go to a musical concert, to the cinema, to the theatre, to the pub for a beer.
Go to the nature. Go hiking, go for a walk in the forest, climbing, to pick mushrooms.
Do winter sports. We can go skiing, snowboarding, skating, we can play ice-hockey at the pond. We can go to the fitness centre.
Collect objects. For example: collect stamps.
Play a musical instrument. Play guitar, a piano, a violin.
Men can do practical jobs around the house. For example decorating, repairing.
Some people can have cooking and baking as their hobby.
Meet with friends in a pub or in a cafe.
Go to the cinema, theatre, to an art exhibition.
Education. We can study languages, computers.
Playing team sports. Going to the disco, pub, parties, cinema. Doing sport. Roller-skating, skateboarding. Playing computer games. Some people join a group to practice their hobby. For example: folk dancing, choir singing and so on.
ART. Collecting, taking of photos, drawing, visiting of galleries, exhibitions.
MUSIC. Listening to music, playing of musical instrument, membership in some group/choir, visiting of parties, disco.
CULTURE. Cinema, theatre, concerts, watching TV.
READING. Possible everywhere, book for everybody – children, youth, adventure book, love stories, crimi.
SOCIAL GAMES. Chess, cards, quiz, domino, riddle, puzzle, crossword puzzle.
SPORT. Healthy for body, it's for everybody, better form, football, volleyball, squash, tennis, jogging, cycling.
HOUSEHOLD WORKS. Useful leisure time activities – gardening, decorating, car maintenance, plumbing.
NATURE. Climbing, walks in a wood, picking up of mushrooms, fishing.
HAND WORKS. Sewing, needlework, knitting, crochet.
Multicultural society is a society where people of different nationalities live together.... In the world we can find people of different race, nationality and religion.
There live lot of nationalities in Slovakia. Most of them are people from lands which border with our country. So there live people from Hungary, Czech Republic, Austria, Poland, Ukraine, and people from Germany too.
In every country there is the majority of people living there as well as some minorities. Government should try to improve the situation so that all people live peacefully and respect each other.
Every country and every nation has its own traditions, habits and holidays.
Customs of different countries.
We must not look people in the eyes. Men take their shoes off before they go to restaurant. They sit on the floor around a small, low table and they sing songs.
They must not point at people.
They never ask you a personal questions about your family or job.
They never talk about religion or matters of finance and education.
They stay with safe subjects like the weather, films, books and so on.
They usually take chocolates or flowers. But they always take an odd number of flowers, and they remove the paper before they give them to the hostess.
They can also send flowers before they arrive.
They do not usually take wine except when they visit very close friends. They arrive exactly or fifteen minutes before when they are invited.
You must give a gift with both hands.
You must not kiss in public.
On the negative side, cultural differences can be emphasized in order to divide a society. This can lead to prejudice and discrimination. There will always be people who think, that their religion and culture is superiour and right, and that other beliefs and cultures are inferiour and wrong. Ethnic minorities may suffer racial disadvantage in a multi ethnic society. In education, children from ethnic minority groups, like refugees, may not perform as well as they are expected.
Throughout our lives we get to know various places. However, the most important place in our life is our birthplace. We know this place pretty well as it is connected with lots of memories from our childhood, with our parents and siblings and with our friends.
Some of us stay in our birth town forever. Those who have to leave their birthplace for any reason never forget about it, and always come back at least for a short visit.
There are many differences between life in the city and life in the countryside. I live in the city. There are many advantages of such a life. There is everything available. There are many cultural and shopping facilities, everything is near.
Life in the city is more hectic. People can go out in the evenings, they can meet with friends. In the city there are also more jobs available. I like living in the city, I have more privacy there. Nobody knows me. I have everything there.
On the other hand living in the countryside can also be interesting. People live in beautiful surroundings. They are in nature. There isn’t so much noise, there is a peaceful atmosphere. There are also some disadvantages. People can’t get everything there. There are only a few shops; there use to be only one or two shops for the whole village. There aren’t many cultural facilities too. People have to travel to work because there are not many jobs available. Everyone knows you. it could be disagreeable when your neighbours are too curious. They usually poke their noses into what is not their business.
We all leave our homes when we travel for holidays. There are many beautiful, surprising, exciting and inspiring places in the world that offer a lot of excitement, possibilities for sightseeing, shopping in luxurious shops, going to restaurants and clubs. The most beautiful cities are Prague, Barcelona, London, New York, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, San Francisco and others. Those people who look for the exotic and relaxation prefer the Hawaiian Islands. To the most beautiful wild places belong the Antarctica, Amazon, Grand Canyon, Canadian Rockies and Sahara.
There are many interesting places in Slovakia. These are:
Mountains. The High Tatras, The Low Tatras.
Old towns or villages.
Caves. The Dobšinska - Ice Cave and others.
Castles. Bratislava Castle and others.
Spas/spa baths. Piešťany, Bardejov, Rajecké Teplice.
The nature in Slovakia is very beautiful. In summer we can go hiking and in winter, we can go skiing in our mountains. We have The High Tatras and The Low Tatras - the nature there is protected by law.
You can also visit old towns and villages, where you can see how people in Slovakia lived in the past. There are old wooden houses. Vlkolínecc is protected by UNESCO. In Rajjecka Lesna there is an old wooden Bethlehem.
In Slovakia there are many caves. The Dobshinska - Ice Cave is the largest ice cave in Europe. Other caves are the Cave of Freedom, Belianska Cave and others.
There are also some very nice castles in our country. For example:
Bojnice castle. Every year there is a ghost festival.
Čachtice. A home of a bloody countess Alžbeta Báthoryová who killed young women and bathed in their blood.
Other castles are Beckov ruins, Trenchín Castle, Bratislava Castle, Spish Castle, Orava Castle, Strechno, Krásna Hôrka and so on.
In Slovakia we have spa baths in Piešťany, Bardejov, Rajecká Lesná.
Although Slovakia is not very big country, it has a lot of natural beauties, monuments and sights. You can admire here many nice towns. For example: Trnava has got many nice baroque churches and an old university. Trnava is called also „The Slovak Rome“.
People like to spend their holiday at different places. It depends on their hobbies, but also on the amount of money they have for their holiday.
Hot or exotic countries
Most people like to go on holiday to hot or exotic countries, because there is hot weather and a sea and they can lie on the beach, sunbathe and swim in the sea. For example: people like to go to Spain, Egypt, Croatia, Italy, Canary Islands and so on.
Some people don’t want to sunbathe and lie on the beach, but they want to spend their holiday actively. They want to see new things and learn a lot about new countries, people and their customs and traditions. They prefer places like Vienna, London, New York or Paris. They visit museums, galleries, concerts and art exhibitions.For example: People go to Paris to see the Eiffel Tower and Louvre. In Louvre there is the picture of Mona Lisa.
Some people like to spend their holiday in the mountains. For example: they go skiing to Alps or High Tatras. In summer they go hiking.
Some people like to spend their holiday at home. They don’t want to travel and so they stay at home and read a book, watch TV or they just spend time with their family and friends.
If you want to find a place, where to spend your free time, you should decide if you want to spend it in an active or passive way. If you want to idle, the best solution is going to the cinema or a footbal stadium to see the match and relax. If you want to be active, go to the leisure or sport centres, to the swimming pool or to the nature with bicycles. If you want to feed your soul, go to the library, ballet, opera or theatre and enjoy the aesthetically experience.
Fashion is important, it represents a person’s style and his or her own way of life. Each person has his own style and taste.
People wear clothes according to their taste, mood and their character. They want to look good.
Women’s fashion has always been different from the men’s fashion. Women wear skirts, make-up, high-heel shoes. Women usually pay more attention to fashion than men do. Their wardrobe is different from the men’s wardrobe. They like shopping for clothes more then men do. They like window-shopping. They like to admire clothes and new models in the shop’s windows without buying them.
Women often buy fashion magazines and they like fashion shows. They pay attention to the changes in the style, patterns, colours of the seasons and they change their wardrobe according to these changes. Women want to be like famous models, for example: Claudia Schiffer, C. Crafford and so on.
Handbag, scarf, gloves, hat, jewellery, earrings, ring, bracelet, necklace, chain, brooch, handkerchief.
People have different attitudes to fashion. For some people fashion is very important and a very necessary part of their life. People want to dress nicely, they like expensive clothes and accessories
I like to wear bright colurs or dark colours. My favourite colour is blue. I prefer sports wear and when I have money, I buy my clothes from brand name shops
Cotton, wool, linen, silk, nylon, denim
Flowered - kvetinový
Geometric - geometrický
Stripped - pasikový
Checked - kockovaný
We can buy books in a bookshop or we can borrow them from a library.
We can read books anywhere - at home, on the bus or train, at the doctor. The books are a good source of informations and entertainment. Reading books can be fun when it is a hobby, but it can also be boring. For example for students who have to study and learn a lot of information, when they have to take an exam or a test.
Every year, the Nobel Prize for Literature is awarded to the writer whose work of fiction is considered unique and great. Nobel Prize winners are for example: Solzhenitsyn with One day of Ivan Denisovich. Samuel Beckett with Waiting for Godot. Jean-Paul Sartre with The wall.
Literature can be divided into 2 categories.
They are usually for informations. They can be divided into:
Textbooks They are educational books which contain informations about a subject. For example: mathematics, geography, or a foreign language.
Dictionaries They tell us about the meanings of words.
Encyclopaedias They are large books and they contain a lot of facts and dates about different subjects. For example: the world encyclopaedias, the animal encyclopaedias and so on.
Biographies. They contain informations about a life of a famous person. For example: of a president, scientist and so on. Sometimes there are also biographies about ordinary people.
Autobiographies and memoirs, Travel books, Art books
Cookery books They contain recipes and teach people how to cook different meals or bake cakes
There are 2 types of fiction books:
POETRY It contains poems.
PROSE It contains: Fairy tale, short stories, westerns, science-fiction, crime novels, romantic novels, historical novel, and thrillers.
Famous English writers
There are many famous English writers. For example:
William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Ernest Hemingway, Oscar Wilde, and so on.
Parents and grandparents usually read the first books to their children and grandchildren. These are fairy tales or stories and they often have more pictures than text. They take children to the fantasy world and teach them to distinguish good from evil. The children’s books by Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm that are worldwide popular are read and loved by many generations of children.
Teenagers and young people usually read adventures, science fiction, romances or novels. Adults, on the other hand, like to read detective stories, historical novels, and books of travellers or biographies. Some people enjoy reading poetry but there are not many because this genre is not easy to read.
Some people need no role-models, they want to go their way, but many people are influenced by role-models - (good look, intelligence, humour, talent, skills, success, lifestyle, character…) who inspire people, are their ideal.
Every person is influenced by other people during his or her life. We watch how people behave in different situations and we copy positive but also negative qualities. Especially children and young people have many role models. We can talk about:
The first models were our parents, brothers, sisters and grandparents. They are important to us because: they teach us to be friendly and polite. They help us to learn how to solve problems. We learn how to get on well with people.
They are our schoolmates, teachers and other people we meet at school.. They are nearly as important as family, entering to school we become a part of society; here we learn to cooperate with other people, to compromise with others to be tolerant, patient, self-disciplined, and hard-working.
Most teenagers look for role models outside their families or their school.. Teenagers love music, cinema and sport, so singers, film stars and famous sportsmen influence them a lot. They try to imitate them: their clothes, hairstyle, make-up, lifestyle and behaviour. Celebrities influence young people positively, but also negatively.
They use their talent. Some celebrities behave well and politely. They work hard and are successful. They can teach young people important moral principles, For example: they work for charity, help poor people and so on.
Many celebrities use drug and alcohol and become addicted. Some celebrities have bad behaviour – they are vulgar and rude. They do not respect people around them. They think that they are better than other people but it isn’t true. They try to make profit in every situation.
LITERALY HEROES are found in literary works - (stories, novels). Most literary heroes are people with high moral standards with whom readers can identify and whose example they may follow. For example: Božena Nemchová – Babichka – Grandmamma, about simply Czech woman, she comes to help her daughter with growing up of 4 grandchildren and with household works. She is intelligent, clever, has experiences, every time good mood.
EVERYDAY HEROES we can find in our daily life. For example: lifeguards, fire-fighters, doctors, soldiers and so on. They are brave, do not hesitate to risk life and help the victims of natural and man-made disasters (earthquakes, floods, droughts or war). They have courage and high moral standards. It can be absolutely simply person.
Examples of positive role models: Mother Teresa
Official motto is: In God we trust. Traditional motto is: Out of many, one. The USA is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It’s area is 9.37 milion square kilometers. It has the population of about 250 million people. The USA is a very multicultural country – there live many different races and religions.
For example: African-American, Asian, American-Indian, Eskimo, Hispanic people and so on. National flag contains 13 stripes (7 of white and 6 of red colour). In the upper right corner there are 50 white stars represents 50 states. They are on blue background.
The USA border: On NORTH Canada. On SOUTH Mexico. On EAST the Atlantic ocean. On WEST the Pacific ocean. A part of the USA is also Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands.
The highest peak of the USA is in Alaska - Mt. McKinley (6194 metres).
Because the USA is a big country, there are big variations of climate. The temperatures change from the arctic cold in northern Alaska to subtropical warmth in Hawaii and in some other states. For example: California, Florida… Florida has subtropical climate which often brings hurricanes.
The US economy is the biggest in the world. The country is rich in raw materials. For example: natural petrol, kaolin, salt, natural gas. Philadelphia is the centre of machinery and chemical industry. Detroit is the centre of US car industry – there are companies such as Pontiac or Chrysler.
The USA is the leading country in agriculture. The American agricultural system is very effective. There are about 2 million farms in the USA and only about 2.4 % of the population work on them. A lot of agricultural production is exported. The most important production is the production of soya, maize/corn and wheat.
USA is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, the largest state is Alaska, the smallest one is Rhode Island. Each state has its own government, laws, education and taxes. The US political system is based on 2 strongest opposed parties – the Republicans (more conservative) and the Democrats (the party of reform). Both sides have its own symbol. The Republicans have the Elephant, and the Democratics have the Donkey. The power of the Government is divided into 3 branches – the executive, legislative and judicial branch. First president was George Washington. Presidential election is held every four years.
The capital city of the USA. D.C. means “District of Columbia”. Washington is the seat of the White House – the seat of the President. Some interesting places in Washington:
The Jefferson Memorial. The White House. The Arlington National Cemetery.
The largest city in the USA. The nicknames of New York are:Melting Pot – because it is a very multicultural city and people of many different races, religions and origins live there.
Big Apple - because when first people came, there were Apple Orchards.
1. Manhattan. The real centre of New York. It's famous for its Manhattan skyline - a large number of skyscrapers on a small area.. One of the highest skyscrapers is called the Empire State Building.
2. Brooklyn – has a famous beach – Coney Beach.
3. The Bronx – there are many parks and the Bronx ZOO – one of the largest in the USA.
4. The Statue of Liberty. It was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy.
5. Wall Street.
6. Madison square garden.
Las Vegas lies in Nevada. It's built on sand. More than 12 million people visit Las Vegas every year. There are many nightclubs and casinos where people can gamble and get rich or loose a lot of money. In Las Vegas people can also see many famous singers, comedians dancers or musicians.
Los Angeles, California. It's a beautiful country with warm weather. There is the Disneyland.
Dallas is the financial and commercial centre. John F. Kennedy was assassinated there in 1963.
Other cities: San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Miami, Seattle, Chicago and so on.
The USA has many national parks with beautiful nature. For example in the Rocky Mountains Region. The famous parks are in Utah, Texas, Arizona, Nevada and so on... The famous national parks are for example: The Grand Canyon National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Death Valley National Park, Yosemite Valley National Park and so on. In Yellowstone are beautiful mountains and waterfalls.
In the USA people celebrate these national holidays: New Year’s Day.. 4th of July is The Independence Day.. 4th Thursday in November is Thanksgiving Day. Christmas day.
Americans play hockey, tennis, basketball and rugby. American football is very different from the football we play in Europe. People sometimes say that the USA is the place, where all your dreams can come true. If you want to work, you can easily find a job and earn money. Therefore many young people want to work and live in the USA. If you want to travel, there are many interesting places that you can see. People are friendly and talk-active. It is also a very multicultural country, so you can meet people of different origin.
The official name of our country is The Slovak republic.
Slovakia is situated in the Central Europe. We can say that it is in the heart of Europe. Slovakia is a small country. Its area is 49036 square kilometres. ..It has the population of about 5 and half million people. It borders on: Czech republic, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary and Austria.
Slovakia is a very mountainous country. In the north there are the High Tatras with the highest peak the Gerlach Peak. There are also other peaks. For example: Kriváň Peak and tarns. For example Popradské pleso.
The Low Tatras. They are not as high as the High Tatras but the nature there is beautiful and it is an ideal place for hiking. The most popular peaks in the Low Tatras are Ďumbier, Zvolen, Chopok and Kráľová Hoľa. In the west there are the Big Fatra, the Small Fatra, the White Carpathian Mountains, the Small Carpathian Mountains. In the east part of central Slovakia there are mountains called the Slovak Paradise and the Slovak Karst.
The biggest rivers are the river Danube, Moravia, Hron, Ipeľ and Ondava. The most important river is the river Danube. In Bratislava, Komárno and Štúrovo there are also ports. The longest river is the river - Vah. Slovakia doesn’t have many lakes. The most important lakes are in the High Tatras – they are called tarns. For example: Popradské pleso and so on. The biggest dams are Domaša Dam, Liptov Dam, Orava Water Dam, Zemplinska Šírava… and the biggest water power station is Gabchíkovo.
It is a mild climate in Slovakia. The warmest part of Slovakia is the south.
The biggest and for our economy the most important factories are the the US Steel Košice, Volkswagen Bratislava and Slovnaft. Woodworking industry is based in Zvolen and Banská Bystrica.. We can find the food industry in every town in Slovakia. The most important factories are in Bratislava, Banská Bystrica and Martin.
The most of the industry is situated in the west of Slovakia, which is bad for people living in other parts of Slovakia - many people are unemployed.
There are many interesting places in Slovakia. These are:
Mountains - The High Tatras, The Low Tatras.
Old towns/villages - Vlkolínec, Čičmany, Vychylovka, Rajecká Lesná.
Caves - The Dobšinská Ice Cave, Belianska Cave, Domanica.
Castles - Devín Castle, Bratislava Castle.
Bratislava is the capital city of Slovakia. It is situated on the bank of the river Danube and therefore it has a very good position. It is also an important industrial city and it's important for our economy. There are many factories. For example: Slovnaft, Volkswagen, Palma and so on. The city has the unemployment rate of only about 3 %... People who like shopping can shop in popular shopping centres Aupark, Polus and so on.
In Bratislava there are many historical buildings and sightseeing places:
The Slovak National Theatre - on the Hviezdoslav Square. There is a statue of Hviezdoslav – an important Slovak writer.
The Slovak National Theatre new bulding - near to Shopping centre Eurovea, and Apollo bridge.
The Slovak National Gallery.
Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra – REDUTA. It is often used for many social and cultural events.
Grassalkovich Palace– the President’s Palace – it's the residence of our president.
Primate’s Palace - there is the famous Mirror hall.
St. Michael’s Gate